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List of publications included in SiMPLOD:

Abdalla, E. M., M. Rohrbach, C. Burer, M. Kraenzlin, H. El-Tayeby, M. F. Elbelbesy, A. Nabil and C. Giunta (2015). "Kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS VIA) in six Egyptian patients presenting with a homogeneous clinical phenotype." Eur J Pediatr 174(1): 105-112
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The kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA) is a rare recessively inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by bruisable, hyperextensible skin, generalized joint laxity, severe muscular hypotonia at birth and progressive congenital scoliosis or kyphosis. Deficiency of the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) due to mutations in PLOD1 results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, in the abnormal formation of collagen cross-links. Here, we report on the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six Egyptian patients from four unrelated families severely affected with EDS VIA. In addition to the frequently reported p.Glu326_Lys585dup, we identified two novel sequence variants p.Gln208* and p.Tyr675*, which lead either to loss of function of LH1 or to its deficiency. All affected children presented with similar clinical features of the disorder, and in addition, several dysmorphic craniofacial features, not yet described in EDS VIA. These were specific for the affected individuals of each family, but absent in their parents and their unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: Our description of six patients presenting with a homogeneous clinical phenotype and dysmorphic craniofacial features will help pediatricians in the diagnosis of this rare disorder.

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al-Gazali, L. I., D. Bakalinova, E. Varady, J. Scorer and M. Nork (1997). "Further delineation of Nevo syndrome." J Med Genet 34(5): 366-370
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Nevo syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterised by prenatal overgrowth, joint laxity, kyphosis, wrist drop, spindle shaped fingers, and volar oedema. Four children from two families have been reported previously. We report two further children from two unrelated Arab families from two different tribes. Both presented at birth with hypotonia, joint laxity, kyphosis, wrist drop, spindle shaped fingers, and volar oedema. Both have delayed motor development at the ages of 2 years 10 months and 3 months respectively. Cognitive development is normal in one, and the other case appears to be developing normally at 3 months of age. One has, in addition, a wide spinal canal on MRI of the spine indicating some degree of dural ectasia. This report brings the total number of children reported with this syndrome to six from four families; three of these families are Arab. This indicates that the gene for this syndrome is probably commoner in Arabs than in other populations.

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Breslau-Siderius, E. J., R. H. Engelbert, G. Pals and J. A. van der Sluijs (1998). "Bruck syndrome: a rare combination of bone fragility and multiple congenital joint contractures." J Pediatr Orthop B 7(1): 35-38.
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Bruck syndrome manifests with combined features of arthrogryposis and osteogenesis imperfecta. It is a distinct autosomal recessive disorder with normal collagen I. The main features are osteoporosis, bowing of the long bones, scoliosis due to vertebral deformities, and congenital joint contractures. The presence of arthrogryposis differentiates this syndrome from "classical" osteogenesis imperfecta. A family with three affected children is presented with a review of the literature.

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Brinckmann, J., Y. Acil, S. Feshchenko, E. Katzer, R. Brenner, A. Kulozik and S. Kugler (1998). "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI: lysyl hydroxylase deficiency due to a novel point mutation (W612C)." Arch Dermatol Res 290(4): 181-186
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disease of connective tissue. The characteristic symptoms are hyperflexibility of joints and hyperelasticity of skin together with marked scoliosis, ocular manifestations and involvement of the vascular system. The underlying biochemical defect in EDS VI is a deficiency in lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD) activity resulting from mutations in the PLOD gene causing a low hydroxylysine content in various tissues. We found that two out of three patients showed a recently described duplication of about 800 bp in their LH mRNA. In the third patient we identified a new point mutation (2036 G-->C) resulting in a substitution of tryptophan by cysteine in the highly conserved C-terminal region of the enzyme (W612C). In addition, this mutation destroys a restriction site of MwoI. Restriction analysis of the patient's cDNA with MwoI showed the sole occurrence of the mutated transcript, while one allele in his genomic DNA contained the MwoI restriction site. Restriction analysis of the genomic DNA of the unaffected parents displayed a heterozygous loss of the restriction site for MwoI in the mother while the DNA of the father appeared normal. Our study demonstrates that the new point mutation (W612C) in conjunction with a functionless allele, most probably a null allele, for the LH gene may explain the functional deficiencies seen in this patient.

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Caparros-Martin, J. A., M. S. Aglan, S. Temtamy, G. A. Otaify, M. Valencia, J. Nevado, E. Vallespin, A. Del Pozo, C. Prior de Castro, L. Calatrava-Ferreras, P. Gutierrez, A. M. Bueno, B. Sagastizabal, E. Guillen-Navarro, M. Ballesta-Martinez, V. Gonzalez, S. Y. Basaran, R. Buyukoglan, B. Sarikepe, C. Espinoza-Valdez, F. Cammarata-Scalisi, V. Martinez-Glez, K. E. Heath, P. Lapunzina and V. L. Ruiz-Perez (2017). "Molecular spectrum and differential diagnosis in patients referred with sporadic or autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta." Mol Genet Genomic Med 5(1): 28-39.
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BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous bone disorder characterized by recurrent fractures. Although most cases of OI have heterozygous mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 and show autosomal dominant inheritance, during the last years there has been an explosion in the number of genes responsible for both recessive and dominant forms of this condition. Herein, we have analyzed a cohort of patients with OI, all offspring of unaffected parents, to determine the spectrum of variants accounting for these cases. Twenty patients had nonrelated parents and were sporadic, and 21 were born to consanguineous relationships. METHODS: Mutation analysis was performed using a next-generation sequencing gene panel, homozygosity mapping, and whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: Patients offspring of nonconsanguineous parents were mostly identified with COL1A1 or COL1A2 heterozygous changes, although there were also a few cases with IFITM5 and WNT1 heterozygous mutations. Only one sporadic patient was a compound heterozygote for two recessive mutations. Patients offspring of consanguineous parents showed homozygous changes in a variety of genes including CRTAP,FKBP10,LEPRE1,PLOD2,PPIB,SERPINF1,TMEM38B, and WNT1. In addition, two patients born to consanguineous parents were found to have de novo COL1A1 heterozygous mutations demonstrating that causative variants in the collagen I structural genes cannot be overlooked in affected children from consanguineous couples. Further to this, WES analysis in probands lacking mutations in OI genes revealed deleterious variants in SCN9A,NTRK1, and SLC2A2, which are associated with congenital indifference to pain (CIP) and Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS). CONCLUSION: This work provides useful information for clinical and genetic diagnosis of OI patients with no positive family history of this disease. Our data also indicate that CIP and FBS are conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis of OI and suggest a positive role of SCN9A and NTRK1 in bone development.

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Dembure, P. P., A. R. Janko, J. H. Priest and L. J. Elsas (1987). "Ascorbate regulation of collagen biosynthesis in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type VI." Metabolism 36(7): 687-691
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We studied two unrelated individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI, which is characterized by congenital hypotonia, lax joints, severe kyphoscoliosis, friable skin, and hemorrhagic hypotrophic scars. The diagnosis was confirmed by decreased hydroxylysine residues in dermal collagen and decreased collagen lysyl hydroxylase activities in their cultured skin fibroblasts. Despite the diminished hydroxylysine residues in dermal collagen from the probands, we found no differences in hydroxylysyl residues of collagen synthesized by fibroblasts in culture. When patient 1 was given oral sodium ascorbate (5 g/d) for 3 weeks, ascorbate concentrations increased two-fold in plasma and 300-fold in urine. Urinary excretion of hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline increased during ascorbate administration. After a 1-year interval, bleeding time, wound healing, and muscle strength improved. Ascorbate supplementation (50 micrograms/mL) to confluent fibroblasts cultured from the two patients and controls increased hydroxyprolyl and hydroxylysyl residues of fibroblasts four to seven and three to four-fold respectively. Total protein associated with the cell layer increased 14% to 32% without concomitant change in cellular DNA. Total soluble collagenous material recovered from culture media increased 61% to 103% with ascorbate supplementation. These studies demonstrate that ascorbate improves the clinical status of patients with impaired collagen lysyl hydroxylase activity by enhancing lysyl and prolyl hydroxylation and total collagen production.

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Dembure, P. P., J. H. Priest, S. C. Snoddy and L. J. Elsas (1984). "Genotyping and prenatal assessment of collagen lysyl hydroxylase deficiency in a family with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Am J Hum Genet 36(4): 783-790
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Collagen lysyl and prolyl hydroxylase activities were measured in cultured fibroblasts from a child with clinical features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Lysyl-to-prolyl hydroxylase activity ratios in cells from the proband, mother, father, and control were .24, .86, .52, and 1.00, respectively, providing a biochemical diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI and indicating an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in this family. Prenatal assessment of lysyl hydroxylase deficiency was requested and accomplished for the first time during a subsequent pregnancy in the family. A series of control cultures established lysyl hydroxylase activity to be similar in cultured amniotic fluid cells (AF and F cells) and in cultured dermal fibroblasts. Cultured F and AF cells from the monitored pregnancy had enzyme activity similar to controls, indicating that the fetus should not be affected by lysyl hydroxylase deficiency. This finding was confirmed by demonstration of normal lysyl hydroxylase activity in fibroblasts cultured from the newborn baby. These studies show that cells cultured from second trimester amniotic fluid have collagen lysyl hydroxylase activity similar to that in dermal fibroblasts, making prenatal diagnosis of lysyl hydroxylase deficiency possible.

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Elsas, L. J., 2nd, R. L. Miller and S. R. Pinnell (1978). "Inherited human collagen lysyl hydroxylase deficiency: ascorbic acid response." J Pediatr 92(3): 378-384
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A patient is described with congenital hypotonia, lax joints, friable skin, hemorrhagic scars, high-arched palate, and borderline microcornea. Acid hydrolyzed whole skin collagen had a reduced hydroxylysine content of 0.5 residues per 1,000 as compared to 5.1 +/- 0.7 in control skin. Collagen lysyl hydroxylase in dialyzed subcellular fractions of cultured skin fibroblasts required L-ascorbate as a principal cofactor. Activity of this enzyme in cultured skin fibroblasts derived from this patient, his father, and mother were 17%, 66%, and 39% of control values, respectively. Collagen prolyl hydroxylase activity was normal. Pharmacologic amounts of oral vitamin C (4 gm/day) produced an increase and withdrawal resulted in abrupt diminution of urinary excretion of hydroxylysine. Over a two-year period the patient's wound healing and muscle strength improved and corneal diameter increased. Hydroxylysine content of the skin did not increase.

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Ewans LJ, Colley A, Gaston-Massuet C, Gualtieri A, Cowley MJ, McCabe MJ, Anand D, Lachke S, Scietti L, Forneris F, Zhu Y, Ying K, Walsh C, Kirk EP, Miller D, Giunta C, Sillence D, Dinger M, Buckley M, Roscioli T. (2019) "Pathogenic variants in PLOD3 result in a Stickler syndrome-like connective tissue disorder with vascular complications." Journal of Medical Genetics, in press
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BACKGROUND- Pathogenic PLOD3 variants cause a connective tissue disorder (CTD) that has been described rarely. We further characterise this CTD and propose a clinical diagnostic label to improve recognition and diagnosis of PLOD3-related disease.METHODS- Reported PLOD3 phenotypes were compared with known CTDs utilising data from three further individuals from a consanguineous family with a homozygous PLOD3 c.809C>T; p.(Pro270Leu) variant. PLOD3 mRNA expression in the developing embryo was analysed for tissue-specific localisation. Mouse microarray expression data were assessed for phylogenetic gene expression similarities across CTDs with overlapping clinical features.RESULTS- Key clinical features included ocular abnormalities with risk for retinal detachment, sensorineural hearing loss, reduced palmar creases, finger contractures, prominent knees, scoliosis, low bone mineral density, recognisable craniofacial dysmorphisms, developmental delay and risk for vascular dissection. Collated clinical features showed most overlap with Stickler syndrome with variable features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Human lysyl hydroxylase 3/PLOD3 expression was localised to the developing cochlea, eyes, skin, forelimbs, heart and cartilage, mirroring the clinical phenotype of this disorder.CONCLUSION- These data are consistent with pathogenic variants in PLOD3 resulting in a clinically distinct Stickler-like syndrome with vascular complications and variable features of EDS and EB. Early identification of PLOD3 variants would improve monitoring for comorbidities and may avoid serious adverse ocular and vascular outcomes.

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Eyre, D., P. Shao, M. A. Weis and B. Steinmann (2002). "The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type VI): differential effects on the hydroxylation of lysine in collagens I and II revealed by analysis of cross-linked telopeptides from urine." Mol Genet Metab 76(3): 211-216
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Giunta, C., A. Randolph and B. Steinmann (2005). "Mutation analysis of the PLOD1 gene: an efficient multistep approach to the molecular diagnosis of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA)." Mol Genet Metab 86(1-2): 269-276
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The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA) is an inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase due to mutations in PLOD1. We describe a mutation analysis strategy for the PLOD1 gene using either cDNA or gDNA or a combination thereof, which allows for reliable, time-effective and efficient mutation detection in patients with EDS VIA. We report the results obtained in 9 index patients from 12 unrelated families: three patients were homozygous for three novel mutations (p.Ile454IlefsX2, p.Ala667Thr, and p.His706Arg), four patients were homozygous for the common duplication of exons 10-16, one patient was compound heterozygous for the common duplication and p.Ile454IlefsX2, and one patient was homozygous for p.Arg319X.

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Giunta, C., A. Randolph, L. I. Al-Gazali, H. G. Brunner, M. E. Kraenzlin and B. Steinmann (2005). "Nevo syndrome is allelic to the kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA)." Am J Med Genet A 133A(2): 158-164.
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We report on seven patients affected with Nevo syndrome, a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased perinatal length, kyphosis, muscular hypotonia, and joint laxity. Since its first description by Nevo et al. [1974], only a few cases have been reported. Because some of these patients present clinical features similar to those of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA), an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase due to mutations in PLOD1, we studied seven patients with Nevo syndrome, three of whom have previously been reported, and four of whom are new. In the five patients from whom urine was available, the ratio of total urinary lysyl pyridinoline (LP) to hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) was elevated (8.2, 7.8, 8.6, 3.5, and 4.8, respectively) compared with that in controls (0.20 +/- 0.05, range 0.10-0.38), and similar to that observed in patients with EDS VIA (5.97 +/- 0.99, range 4.3-8.1). Six patients were homozygous for a point mutation in exon 9 of PLOD1 causing a p.R319X nonsense mutation, while one patient was homozygous for a large deletion comprising exon 17 of PLOD1. We conclude that the Nevo syndrome is allelic to and clinically indistinguishable from EDS VIA, and present evidence that increased length at birth and wristdrop, in addition to muscular hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis, should prompt the physician to consider EDS VIA earlier than heretofore.

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Giunta, C., C. Burer-Chambaz and B. Steinmann (2009). "Novel human pathological mutations. Gene symbol: PLOD1. Disease: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA, kyphoscoliotic type." Hum Genet 125(3): 346
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Guo, H. F., C. L. Tsai, M. Terajima, X. Tan, P. Banerjee, M. D. Miller, X. Liu, J. Yu, J. Byemerwa, S. Alvarado, T. S. Kaoud, K. N. Dalby, N. Bota-Rabassedas, Y. Chen, M. Yamauchi, J. A. Tainer, G. N. Phillips, Jr. and J. M. Kurie (2018). "Pro-metastatic collagen lysyl hydroxylase dimer assemblies stabilized by Fe(2+)-binding." Nat Commun 9(1): 512
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Collagen lysyl hydroxylases (LH1-3) are Fe2+- and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases that maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. High LH2 levels cause stable collagen cross-link accumulations that promote fibrosis and cancer progression. However, developing LH antagonists will require structural insights. Here, we report a 2?Å crystal structure and X-ray scattering on dimer assemblies for the LH domain of L230 in Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. Loop residues in the double-stranded ?-helix core generate a tail-to-tail dimer. A stabilizing hydrophobic leucine locks into an aromatic tyrosine-pocket on the opposite subunit. An active site triad coordinates Fe2+. The two active sites flank a deep surface cleft that suggest dimerization creates a collagen-binding site. Loss of Fe2+-binding disrupts the dimer. Dimer disruption and charge reversal in the cleft increase Km and reduce LH activity. Ectopic L230 expression in tumors promotes collagen cross-linking and metastasis. These insights suggest inhibitor targets for fibrosis and cancer.

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Ha, V. T., M. K. Marshall, L. J. Elsas, S. R. Pinnell and H. N. Yeowell (1994). "A patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI is a compound heterozygote for mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase gene." J Clin Invest 93(4): 1716-1721
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In the present study, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary DNAs of two mutant alleles for lysyl hydroxylase (LH) in fibroblasts from one patient (AT750) with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI). We have identified a putative mutation in each allele which may be responsible for the patient's decreased LH (normalized to prolyl hydroxylase) activity (24% of normal). Intermediate levels of LH activity were measured in the patient's parents, who are clinically normal (father 52%; mother 86%). After the cloning of cDNAs and amplification by PCR, sequence analysis revealed two equally distributed populations of cDNAs for LH in the AT750 cell line. Each allele revealed different but significant changes from the normal sequence. In one allele (allele 1), the most striking change was a triple base deletion that would result in the loss of residue Glu532. The most significant difference in the other allele (allele 2) was a G-->A change which would produce a Gly678-->Arg codon change in a highly conserved region of the enzyme. Restriction analysis identified that allele 1 was inherited from the proband's mother and allele 2 from the father. This study represents the first example of compound heterozygosity for the LH gene in an EDS VI patient, and it appears that there is an additive effect of each mutant allele on clinical expression in this patient.

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Ha-Vinh, R., Y. Alanay, R. A. Bank, A. B. Campos-Xavier, A. Zankl, A. Superti-Furga and L. Bonafe (2004). "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Bruck syndrome (osteogenesis imperfecta with contractures of the large joints) caused by a recessive mutation in PLOD2." Am J Med Genet A 131(2): 115-120
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Bruck syndrome (BS) is a recessively-inherited phenotypic disorder featuring the unusual combination of skeletal changes resembling osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with congenital contractures of the large joints. Clinical heterogeneity is apparent in cases reported thus far. While the genes coding for collagen 1 chains are unaffected in BS, there is biochemical evidence for a defect in the hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagen 1 telopeptides. One BS locus has been mapped at 17p12, but more recently, two mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase 2 gene (PLOD2, 3q23-q24) have been identified in BS, showing genetic heterogeneity. The proportion of BS cases linked to 17p22 (BS type 1) or caused by mutations in PLOD2 (BS type 2) is still uncertain, and phenotypic correlations are lacking. We report on a boy who had congenital contractures with pterygia at birth and severe OI-like osteopenia and multiple fractures. His urine contained high amounts of hydroxyproline but low amounts of collagen crosslinks degradation products; and he was shown to be homozygous for a novel mutation leading to an Arg598His substitution in PLOD2. The mutation is adjacent to the two mutations previously reported (Gly601Val and Thr608Ile), suggesting a functionally important hotspot in PLOD2. The combination of pterygia with bone fragility, as illustrated by this case, is difficult to explain; it suggests that telopeptide lysyl hydroxylation must be involved in prenatal joint formation and morphogenesis. Collagen degradation products in urine and mutation analysis of PLOD2 may be used to diagnose BS and differentiate it from OI.

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Heikkinen, J., B. Pousi, M. Pope and R. Myllyla (1999). "A null-mutated lysyl hydroxylase gene in a compound heterozygote British patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Hum Mutat 14(4): 351.
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A British patient with EDS VI had two novel null mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase gene, one nucleotide deletion in the acceptor splice site of intron 4 in one allele, and an insertion of a C nucleotide in exon 2 of the other allele. The abnormal alleles lead to a markedly decreased lysyl hydroxylase mRNA levels, the finding making the affected cells different from the normal cells. In addition to the mutation analysis, we have revealed many exon-deleted splicing variants for lysyl hydroxylase mRNA which were first discovered in the affected cells, but tracks of similarly spliced mRNA species are also found in the cytoplasm of normal human skin fibroblasts. The data suggest that the splicing machinery of the cell is leaky generating differently spliced transcripts in the cell but only in a small amounts.

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Heikkinen, J., M. Risteli, C. Wang, J. Latvala, M. Rossi, M. Valtavaara and R. Myllyla (2000). "Lysyl hydroxylase 3 is a multifunctional protein possessing collagen glucosyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 275(46): 36158-36163
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Lysyl hydroxylase (EC ) and glucosyltransferase (EC ) are enzymes involved in post-translational modifications during collagen biosynthesis. We reveal in this paper that the protein produced by the cDNA for human lysyl hydroxylase isoform 3 (LH3) has both lysyl hydroxylase and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities. The other known lysyl hydroxylase isoforms, LH1, LH2a, and LH2b, have no GGT activity. Furthermore, antibodies recognizing the amino acid sequence of human LH3 and those against a highly purified chicken GGT partially inhibited the GGT activity. Similarly, a partial inhibition was observed when these antibodies were tested against GGT extracted from human skin fibroblasts. In vitro mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the amino acids involved in the GGT active site differ from those required for LH3 activity.

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Heikkinen, J., T. Toppinen, H. Yeowell, T. Krieg, B. Steinmann, K. I. Kivirikko and R. Myllyla (1997). "Duplication of seven exons in the lysyl hydroxylase gene is associated with longer forms of a repetitive sequence within the gene and is a common cause for the type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome." Am J Hum Genet 60(1): 48-56.
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The type VI variant of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a recessively inherited connective tissue disorder which, in most families, is due to a deficiency in lysyl hydroxylase activity. We have recently characterized a homozygous duplication of 8.9 kb in the lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD) in two EDS VI families. The duplication is caused by a homologous recombination of Alu sequences in introns 9 and 16. Using PCR, we have analyzed 26 additional EDS VI families from various countries and found that 7 of them have this duplication. Our data has shown a frequency of 19.1% for this mutant allele among 35 EDS VI families studied by us so far. Our haplotype analysis shows a variation in the sequence of DNA region surrounding the duplication. There is an association between a particular allele size class, the long form, at the dinucleotide repeat within intron 16 and the duplication mutation in PLOD. Screening of a general population revealed one positive finding among 582 alleles tested. An abnormal sequence in exon 17 of the gene, which generated a stop codon in the exon sequence and aberrant mRNA processing, was responsible for the nonfunctionality of the other allele in one of the compound heterozygous patients.

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Hilderink, B. G. and H. G. Brunner (1995). "Nevo syndrome." Clin Dysmorphol 4(4): 319-323.
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We describe a male patient born to consanguineous parents with a syndrome of tall stature at birth, hypotonia, wrist drop and long spindle shaped fingers. The clinical features are identical to those previously described in three cases from a single family by Nevo et al. (1974: J Med Genet 11: 158-165). Autosomal recessive inheritance is supported by consanguinity in our case. Follow-up at age 3 years demonstrated significant improvement of hypotonia and motor function, and normal cognitive ability.

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Hyland, J., L. Ala-Kokko, P. Royce, B. Steinmann, K. I. Kivirikko and R. Myllyla (1992). "A homozygous stop codon in the lysyl hydroxylase gene in two siblings with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Nat Genet 2(3): 228-231
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is characterized by joint hypermobility, alterations in the skin and additional signs of connective tissue involvement. EDS type VI was the first connective tissue disorder for which a specific defect in collagen metabolism was identified, namely a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase activity. We now report a homozygous single basepair substitution converting the CGA codon (Arg319) to a TGA termination codon in two siblings with EDS type VI. The healthy parents, who are first cousins, and two of the three healthy siblings of the patients are heterozygous. The mutation leads to an almost complete absence of lysyl hydroxylase activity in extracts derived from fibroblasts of the patients.

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Hyry, M., J. Lantto and J. Myllyharju (2009). "Missense mutations that cause Bruck syndrome affect enzymatic activity, folding, and oligomerization of lysyl hydroxylase 2." J Biol Chem 284(45): 30917-30924
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Bruck syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by fragile bones, joint contractures, scoliosis, and osteoporosis. The telopeptides of bone collagen I are underhydroxylated in these patients, leading to abnormal collagen cross-linking. Three point mutations in lysyl hydroxylase (LH) 2, the enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of collagen telopeptides, have been identified in Bruck syndrome. As none of them affects the residues known to be critical for LH activity, we studied their consequences at the molecular level by analyzing the folding and catalytic properties of the corresponding mutant recombinant polypeptides. Folding and oligomerization of the R594H and G597V mutants were abnormal, and their activity was reduced by >95% relative to the wild type. The T604I mutation did not affect the folding properties, although the mutant retained only approximately 8% activity under standard assay conditions. As the reduced activity was caused by a 10-fold increase in the K(m) for 2-oxoglutarate, the mutation interferes with binding of this cosubstrate. In the presence of a saturating 2-oxoglutarate concentration, the activity of the T604I mutant was approximately 30% of that of the wild type. However, the T604I mutant did not generate detectable amounts of hydroxylysine in the N-terminal telopeptide of a recombinant procollagen I chain when coexpressed in insect cells. The low activity of the mutant LH2 polypeptides is in accordance with the markedly reduced extent of collagen telopeptide hydroxylation in Bruck syndrome, with consequent changes in the cross-linking of collagen fibrils and severe abnormalities in the skeletal structures.

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Ihme, A., T. Krieg, A. Nerlich, U. Feldmann, J. Rauterberg, R. W. Glanville, G. Edel and P. K. Muller (1984). "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI: collagen type specificity of defective lysyl hydroxylation in various tissues." J Invest Dermatol 83(3): 161-165.
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The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI is an inherited disorder of collagen metabolism characterized by a defective lysyl hydroxylase. The resulting lack of hydroxylysine has been found in several connective tissues, all of which show varying degrees of clinical symptoms. In the present study, collagen was isolated from different connective tissues and the degree of hydroxylation of lysyl residues was determined. Subsequently, collagen types I, II, III, IV, and V have been prepared from a number of tissues. Insufficient hydroxylation of lysyl residues was found in type I and type III collagen, whereas types II, IV, and V showed normal amounts of hydroxylysine. The expression of the defect, even for type I and type III collagen, varied widely from one tissue to another. A complete lack of hydroxylysine was observed in skin, while it was less pronounced in tissues such as bone, tendon, lung, or kidney. The data suggest the presence of several isoenzymes having varying affinities to the different collagen types.

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Kariminejad, A., B. Bozorgmehr, A. Khatami, M. H. Kariminejad, C. Giunta and B. Steinmann (2010). "Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VI in a 17-Year-Old Iranian Boy with Severe Muscular Weakness - A Diagnostic Challenge?" Iran J Pediatr 20(3): 358-362
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BACKGROUND: The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDSVI) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease which is characterized by severe hypotonia at birth, progressive kyphoscoliosis, skin hyperelasticity and fragility, joint hypermobility and (sub-)luxations, microcornea, rupture of arteries and the eye globe, and osteopenia. The enzyme collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1) is deficient in these patients due to mutations in the PLOD1 gene. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 17-year-old boy, born to related parents, with severe kyphoscoliosis, scar formation, joint hypermobility and multiple dislocations, muscular weakness, rupture of an ocular globe, and a history of severe infantile hypotonia. EDS VI was suspected clinically and confirmed by an elevated ratio of urinary total lysyl pyridinoline to hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, abnormal electrophoretic mobility of the ?-collagen chains, and mutation analysis. CONCLUSION: Because of the high rate of consanguineous marriages in Iran and, as a consequence thereof, an increased rate of autosomal recessive disorders, we urge physicians to consider EDS VI in the differential diagnosis of severe infantile hypotonia and muscular weakness, a disorder which can easily be confirmed by the analysis of urinary pyridinolines that is highly specific, sensitive, robust, fast, non-invasive, and inexpensive.

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Krieg, T., U. Feldmann, W. Kessler and P. K. Muller (1979). "Biochemical characteristics of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI in a family with one affected infant." Hum Genet 46(1): 41-49.
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The parents of a child with the clinical symptoms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI were identified as third-degree cousins. Biochemical analysis of the dermis of the patient revealed a complete lack of hydroxylysine in the dermal collagen. The dermis of both parents contained only half the amount of hydroxylysine found in healthy individuals. Hydroxylation of prolyl residues was normal in the skin of the patient and his parents. Investigation of the collagen synthesized by fibroblasts derived from the skin of the patient showed a normal proportion of type I and type III collagen. However, while hydroxylation of prolyl residues was normal in type I and type III collagen, hydroxylation of lysyl residues was markedly lower than normal in both type I and type III collagen.

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Leal, G. F., G. Nishimura, U. Voss, D. R. Bertola, E. Astrom, J. Svensson, G. L. Yamamoto, A. Hammarsjo, E. Horemuzova, N. Papadiogannakis, E. Iwarsson, G. Grigelioniene and E. Tham (2018). "Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of Phenotypes Caused by Pathogenic Variants in PLOD2." J Bone Miner Res 33(4): 753-760
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Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a strikingly heterogeneous group of disorders with a broad range of phenotypic variations. It is also one of the differential diagnoses in bent bone dysplasias along with campomelic dysplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia and can usually be distinguished by decreased bone mineralization and bone fractures. Bent bone dysplasias also include syndromes such as kyphomelic dysplasia (MIM:211350) and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (MIM249710), both of which have been under debate regarding whether or not they are a real entity or simply a phenotypic manifestation of another dysplasia including OI. Bruck syndrome type 2 (BRKS2; MIM:609220) is a rare form of autosomal recessive OI caused by biallelic PLOD2 variants and is associated with congenital joint contractures with pterygia. In this report, we present six patients from four families with novel PLOD2 variants. All cases had multiple fractures. Other features ranged from prenatal lethal severe angulation of the long bones as in kyphomelic dysplasia and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon through classical Bruck syndrome to moderate OI with normal joints. Two siblings with a kyphomelic dysplasia-like phenotype who were stillborn had compound heterozygous variants in PLOD2 (p.Asp585Val and p.Ser166*). One infant who succumbed at age 4 months had a bent bone phenotype phenotypically like skeletal dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (with mesomelic shortening, camptodactyly, retrognathia, cleft palate, skin dimples, but also with fractures). He was homozygous for the nonsense variant (p.Trp561*). Two siblings had various degrees of Bruck syndrome caused by the homozygous missense variant, p.His687Arg. Furthermore a boy with a clinical presentation of moderate OI had a possibly pathogenic homozygous variant p.Trp588Cys. Our experience of six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in PLOD2 expands the phenotypic spectrum in the PLOD2-related phenotypes.

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Lv, F., X. Xu, Y. Song, L. Li, Asan, J. Wang, H. Yang, O. Wang, Y. Jiang, W. Xia, X. Xing and M. Li (2018). "Novel Mutations in PLOD2 Cause Rare Bruck Syndrome." Calcif Tissue Int 102(3): 296-309
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Bruck syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), which is mainly characterized by joint contractures and recurrent fragility fractures. Mutations in FKBP10 and PLOD2 were identified as the underlying genetic defects of Bruck syndrome. Here we investigated the phenotypes and the pathogenic mutations of three unrelated Chinese patients with Bruck syndrome. Clinical fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover biomarkers, and skeletal images were evaluated in detail. The pathogenic mutations were identified by targeted next-generation sequencing and subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analysis. We also evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid on bone fracture incidence and BMD of the patients. Three patients had congenital joint contractures, recurrent fragility fractures, camptodactyly, clubfoot, scoliosis, but without dentinogenesis imperfecta and hearing loss. Five novel heterozygous mutations were detected in PLOD2, including three heterozygous missense mutations (c.1138C>T, p.Arg380Cys; c.1153T>C, p.Cys385Arg; and c.1982G>A, p.Gly661Asp), one heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.2038C>T, p.Arg680X), and one heterozygous splice-site mutation (c.503-2A>G). Their parents were all heterozygous carriers of these mutations in PLOD2. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found in these patients with PLOD2 mutations. Z-score of BMD was significantly increased, but scoliosis progressed and new bone fractures occurred during the treatment of zoledronic acid. Our findings expanded the spectrum of gene mutations of Bruck syndrome.

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Miller, R. L., L. J. Elsas and R. E. Priest (1979). "Ascorbate action on normal and mutant human lysyl hydroxylases from cultured dermal fibroblasts." J Invest Dermatol 72(5): 241-247
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The mechanism of ascorbate action on lysyl hydroxylase (LH) was investigated using cultured dermal fibroblasts from a patient with hydroxylysine-deficient collagen disease and from appropriate control patients. Cells from this patient had moderately impaired LH and both parents had intermediate values. Prolyl hydroxylase (PH) was normal in these 3 cell lines and the ratio between LH and PH proved an effective genetic discriminant among cell lines from different individuals expressing varying enzyme activity. Ascorbate requirements for normal and mutant enzymes were defined and compared. Some specificity for ascorbate as the principal physiological reductant was found. Lysyl hydroxylase activity from controls was 89% of maximum when dithiothreitol alone was omitted whereas only 8% of activity was present when L-ascorbate alone was omitted. Control activity was fully reconstituted when isoascorbate was substituted for L-ascorbate, but activity was absent when dehydroascorbate was used. Enzyme activity in cultured cells from this patient and a control was enhanced proportionately by increasing ascorbate concentration. At concentrations of 0.5 mM and above, saturation was evident and mutant enzyme activity was 17% of control. The apparent Km of both enzymes for ascorbate was identical (0.1 mM) while the apparent V max of mutant enzyme was reduced to 25% of control. Ascorbate did not alter thermostability of either mutant or control enzyme, and increasing ascorbate concentration did not overcome competitive inhibition by Cu2+ of Fe2+-dependent enzyme activity. These studies demonstrated that this patient with type VI, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome had reduced skin collagen hydroxylysine caused by impaired lysyl hydroxylase, that this mutation was transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and that the mutant enzyme had a reduced capacity for ascorbate. Ascorbate augmented lysyl hydroxylase activity by direct electron donation at a ferrous ion-containing site of this enzyme complex.

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Mumm, S., Gottesman, G. S., Wenkert, D., Campeau, P. M., Nenninger, A., Huskey, M., Bijanki, V. N., Veis, D. J., Barnes, A. M., Marini, J. C., Stolina, M., Zhang, F., Mcalister, W. H., Whyte, M. P. (2019). "Bruck syndrome 2 variant lacking congenital contractures and involving a novel compound heterozygous plod2 mutation." Bone, 115047.
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Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, early on called osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.

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Pajunen, L., M. Suokas, T. Hautala, S. Kellokumpu, B. Tebbe, K. I. Kivirikko and R. Myllyla (1998). "A splice-site mutation that induces exon skipping and reduction in lysyl hydroxylase mRNA levels but does not create a nonsense codon in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." DNA Cell Biol 17(2): 117-123
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The type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme required for the post-translational processing of collagens. We have characterized a novel type of mutation in a young female patient with type VI EDS, in which cells possess only 12% of the lysyl hydroxylase activity that is detected in unaffected cells. The syndrome was found to be caused by a homozygous insertion of two thymidines at the 5' splice site consensus sequence of intron 9 in the lysyl hydroxylase gene. The insertion interfered with normal splicing of the primary RNA transcript and resulted in an inframe deletion of the 132 nucleotides coded by exon 9 from the lysyl hydroxylase mRNA. In addition, the mutation caused a marked reduction in the steady-state level of the truncated mRNA, which was less than 15% of the level found in unaffected cells. The mutation also reduced the amount of the enzyme protein produced, which was estimated to be about 20% of that in control cells. However, the mutation did not affect the stability of the abnormally spliced mRNA nor the normal localization of the enzyme protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. According to our results, the reduction in enzymatic activity observed in this patient is caused by low levels of both lysyl hydroxylase mRNA and enzyme protein. The primary cellular defect associated with this mutation, therefore, appears to be at the level of nuclear mRNA metabolism even though the mutation did not create a premature translation termination codon.

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Passoja, K., K. Rautavuoma, L. Ala-Kokko, T. Kosonen and K. I. Kivirikko (1998). "Cloning and characterization of a third human lysyl hydroxylase isoform." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(18): 10482-10486
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Lysyl hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens by a reaction that involves oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate. Its binding site can be divided into two main subsites: subsite I consists of a positively charged side-chain which binds the C-5 carboxyl group, while subsite II consists of two coordination sites of the enzyme-bound Fe2+ and is chelated by the C-1-C-2 moiety. In order to identify subsite I, we converted Arg-697, Arg-700 and Ser-705 individually to alanine and Arg-700 also to lysine, and expressed the mutant enzymes in insect cells. Arg-700-Ala inactivated lysyl hydroxylase completely, whereas Arg-697-Ala and Ser-723-Ala had only a relatively minor effect. Arg-700-Lys produced 93% inactivation under standard assay conditions, the main effect being a 10-fold increase in the Km for 2-oxoglutarate, whereas the Vmax was unchanged. Arg-700 thus provides the positively charged residue that binds the C-5 carboxyl group of 2-oxoglutarate, whereas Ser-705 appears to be of no functional significance in this binding.

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Pirskanen, A., A. M. Kaimio, R. Myllyla and K. I. Kivirikko (1996). "Site-directed mutagenesis of human lysyl hydroxylase expressed in insect cells. Identification of histidine residues and an aspartic acid residue critical for catalytic activity." J Biol Chem 271(16): 9398-9402
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Lysyl hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.4), an alpha 2 homodimer, catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens. We expressed here human lysyl hydroxylase in insect cells by baculovirus vectors. About 90% of the enzyme produced was soluble 32 h after infection, whereas only 10% was soluble at 72 h. Twelve histidines, five aspartates, and all four asparagines that may act as N-glycosylation sites were converted individually to serine, alanine, or glutamine, respectively, and the mutant enzymes were expressed in insect cells. Three histidine mutations and one aspartate mutation appeared to inactivate the enzyme completely. These and other data suggest that histidines 656 and 708 and aspartate 658 provide the three ligands required for the binding of Fe2+ to a catalytic site, whereas the role of the third critical histidine (residue 706) remains to be established. Three additional histidine mutations also had a major effect, although they did not inactivate the enzyme completely, whereas six further histidine mutations and four out of five aspartate mutations had a much more minor effect. Data on the four asparagine mutations suggested that only two of the potential N-glycosylation sites may be fully glycosylated in insect cells and that one of these carbohydrate units may be needed for full enzyme activity.

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Pousi, B., J. Heikkinen, J. Schroter, M. Pope and R. Myllyla (2000). "A nonsense codon of exon 14 reduces lysyl hydroxylase mRNA and leads to aberrant RNA splicing in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Mutat Res 432(1-2): 33-37
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDSVI) is an autosomal recessively inherited connective tissue disease, characterized by kyphoscoliosis, muscular hypotonia and ocular manifestations. The cause of the syndrome is a deficiency in the activity of lysyl hydroxylase (LH), one of the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of collagens. We describe here an unusual compound heterozygote British patient with EDSVI. Our investigations indicate that a maternally inherited nonsense mutation (Y511X) in exon 14 of the LH gene (PLOD1) results in a reduction of the mRNA level as well as a skipping of exon 14 sequences in the mRNA that produces a protein shortened by 38 amino acids. The transcription of the other allele of the LH gene is considerably reduced from the normal for reasons that are not yet known. As a consequence, the LH activity of the skin fibroblasts of the patient is markedly reduced.

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Pousi, B., T. Hautala, J. C. Hyland, J. Schroter, B. Eckes, K. I. Kivirikko and R. Myllyla (1998). "A compound heterozygote patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI has a deletion in one allele and a splicing defect in the other allele of the lysyl hydroxylase gene." Hum Mutat 11(1): 55-61
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We report the first deletion mutation and the first splicing defect in the lysyl hydroxylase gene in a compound heterozygote patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI with markedly reduced lysyl hydroxylase activity. Northern analysis of the RNA isolated from skin fibroblasts of the patient demonstrated the presence of a truncated lysyl hydroxylase mRNA. PCR and sequence analysis confirmed the truncation and indicated that the cells contain two types of shortened mRNAs, one lacking the sequences corresponding to exon 16 and the other lacking that corresponding to exon 17 of the lysyl hydroxylase gene. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed deletion of the penultimate adenosine from the 3' end of intron 15 from one allele. This defect was probably responsible for the skipping of exon 16 sequences from the transcript. The other allele, inherited from the mother, contains an Alu-Alu recombination with a deletion of about 3,000 nucleotides from the gene; this abnormality explains the lack of exon 17 sequences. The identified mutations in exon 16 and exon 17 do not alter the reading frame of the transcripts.

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Puig-Hervas, M. T., S. Temtamy, M. Aglan, M. Valencia, V. Martinez-Glez, M. J. Ballesta-Martinez, V. Lopez-Gonzalez, A. M. Ashour, K. Amr, V. Pulido, E. Guillen-Navarro, P. Lapunzina, J. A. Caparros-Martin and V. L. Ruiz-Perez (2012). "Mutations in PLOD2 cause autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorders within the Bruck syndrome--osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypic spectrum." Hum Mutat 33(10): 1444-1449
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PLOD2 and FKBP10 are genes mutated in Bruck syndrome (BS), a condition resembling osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), but that is also typically associated with congenital joint contractures. Herein, we sought mutations in six consanguineous BS families and detected changes in either PLOD2 or FKBP10 in all cases. Two probands were found with a homozygous frameshift mutation in the alternative exon 13a of PLOD2, indicating that specific inactivation of the longer protein isoform encoded by this gene is sufficient to cause BS. In addition, by homozygosity mapping, followed by a candidate gene approach, we identified a homozygous donor splice site mutation in PLOD2 in a patient with autosomal-recessive OI (AR-OI). Screening of additional samples also revealed compound heterozygous mutations in PLOD2 in two brothers, one affected with mild AR-OI and the other with mild BS. Thus, PLOD2 in addition to causing BS is also associated with AR-OI phenotypes of variable severity.

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Rohrbach, M., A. Vandersteen, U. Yis, G. Serdaroglu, E. Ataman, M. Chopra, S. Garcia, K. Jones, A. Kariminejad, M. Kraenzlin, C. Marcelis, M. Baumgartner and C. Giunta (2011). "Phenotypic variability of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA): clinical, molecular and biochemical delineation." Orphanet J Rare Dis 6: 46
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BACKGROUND: The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA) (OMIM 225400) is a rare inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; EC 1.14.11.4) due to mutations in PLOD1. Biochemically this results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an abnormal pattern of lysyl pyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) crosslinks excreted in the urine. Clinically the disorder is characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Severe hypotonia usually leads to delay in gross motor development, whereas cognitive development is reported to be normal. METHODS: We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular characterisation, as well as electron microscopy findings of skin, in 15 patients newly diagnosed with this rare type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. RESULTS: Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 months to 27 years, with only 1/3 of the patients been diagnosed correctly in the first year of life. A similar disease frequency was found in females and males, however a broad disease severity spectrum (intra- and interfamilial), independent of molecular background or biochemical phenotype, was observed. Kyphoscoliosis, one of the main clinical features was not present at birth in 4 patients. Importantly we also noted the occurrence of vascular rupture antenatally and postnatally, as well as developmental delay in 5 patients. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings we propose that EDS VIA is a highly variable clinical entity, presenting with a broad clinical spectrum, which may also be associated with cognitive delay and an increased risk for vascular events. Genotype/phenotype association studies and additional molecular investigations in more extended EDS VIA populations will be necessary to further elucidate the cause of the variability of the disease severity.

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Royce, P. M. and M. J. Barnes (1985). "Failure of highly purified lysyl hydroxylase to hydroxylate lysyl residues in the non-helical regions of collagen." Biochem J 230(2): 475-480
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The activity of highly purified lysyl hydroxylase towards lysyl residues within both the helical and the N-terminal non-helical telopeptide regions of chick type I collagen has been examined. The peptides alpha 1(I)-CB1 and alpha 2(I)-CB1, isolated from protocollagen following CNBr digestion and containing the N-terminal telopeptidyl lysyl residues, failed themselves to act as substrates. With protocollagen as substrate, analysis of products obtained following bacterial collagenase digestion of the reaction mixture showed that overall 37% hydroxylation of lysyl residues within the helical region of collagen had been obtained, which may be maximal. No hydroxylation, however, of the single lysyl residue in either alpha 1(I)-CB1 or alpha 2(I)-CB1, isolated following CNBr digestion of the reaction mixture, was observed, despite the known susceptibility of these residues to hydroxylation. These findings provide strong circumstantial evidence for the suggestion that a lysyl hydroxylase specific for the telopeptidyl residues and distinct from that active towards lysyl residues in the helical portion of the molecule may exist [Barnes, Constable, Morton & Royce (1974) Biochem. J. 139, 461-468].

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Salavoura, K., M. Valari, A. Kolialexi, A. Mavrou and S. Kitsiou (2006). "A case of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type VI." Genet Couns 17(3): 291-294
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Ehlers Danlos type VI is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disease involving primarily the skin and joints. The main feature of the condition is neonatal hypotonia and rare complications are ruptures of arteries and the eye globe. A 4 year old girl with a typical clinical presentation and molecular diagnosis of EDS VI is presented. Sequencing of PLOD1 gene revealed a homozygous deletion in exon 13 (c.1362delC), leading to a frameshift and truncation of the lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme necessary for collagen biosynthesis. Early diagnosis allowed treatment with high doses of ascorbic acid in order to prevent complications, genetic counseling of the family and prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected embryo.

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Salo, A. M., H. Cox, P. Farndon, C. Moss, H. Grindulis, M. Risteli, S. P. Robins and R. Myllyla (2008). "A connective tissue disorder caused by mutations of the lysyl hydroxylase 3 gene." Am J Hum Genet 83(4): 495-503
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Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, encoded by PLOD3) is a multifunctional enzyme capable of catalyzing hydroxylation of lysyl residues and O-glycosylation of hydroxylysyl residues producing either monosaccharide (Gal) or disaccharide (Glc-Gal) derivatives, reactions that form part of the many posttranslational modifications required during collagen biosynthesis. Animal studies have confirmed the importance of LH3, particularly in biosynthesis of the highly glycosylated type IV and VI collagens, but to date, the functional significance in vivo of this enzyme in man is predominantly unknown. We report here a human disorder of LH3 presenting as a compound heterozygote with recessive inheritance. One mutation dramatically reduced the sugar-transfer activity of LH3, whereas another abrogated lysyl hydroxylase activity; these changes were accompanied by reduced LH3 protein levels in cells. The disorder has a unique phenotype causing severe morbidity as a result of features that overlap with a number of known collagen disorders.

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Scietti, L., A. Chiapparino, F. De Giorgi, M. Fumagalli, L. Khoriauli, S. Nergadze, S. Basu, V. Olieric, L. Cucca, B. Banushi, A. Profumo, E. Giulotto, P. Gissen and F. Forneris (2018). "Molecular architecture of the multifunctional collagen lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase LH3." Nat Commun 9(1): 3163
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Lysyl hydroxylases catalyze hydroxylation of collagen lysines, and sustain essential roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) maturation and remodeling. Malfunctions in these enzymes cause severe connective tissue disorders. Human lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3/PLOD3) bears multiple enzymatic activities, as it catalyzes collagen lysine hydroxylation and also their subsequent glycosylation. Our understanding of LH3 functions is currently hampered by lack of molecular structure information. Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of full-length human LH3 in complex with cofactors and donor substrates. The elongated homodimeric LH3 architecture shows two distinct catalytic sites at the N- and C-terminal boundaries of each monomer, separated by an accessory domain. The glycosyltransferase domain displays distinguishing features compared to other known glycosyltransferases. Known disease-related mutations map in close proximity to the catalytic sites. Collectively, our results provide a structural framework characterizing the multiple functions of LH3, and the molecular mechanisms of collagen-related diseases involving human lysyl hydroxylases.

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Steinmann, B., D. R. Eyre and P. Shao (1995). "Urinary pyridinoline cross-links in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Am J Hum Genet 57(6): 1505-1508
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Tosun, A., S. Kurtgoz, S. Dursun and G. Bozkurt (2014). "A case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA with a novel PLOD1 gene mutation." Pediatr Neurol 51(4): 566-569.
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BACKGROUND: The kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by soft extensible skin, laxity of joints, severe muscle hypotonia at birth, and kyphoscoliosis. PATIENT: We describe a 3-year-old girl with the kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome whose parents were cousins. She was born with breech presentation by vaginal delivery at term after a normal pregnancy. At birth she manifested hypotonia and congenital kyphosis. On the second postnatal day, subdural and intraparenchymal hemorrhages were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. During follow-up at 18 months of age, strabismus, umbilical hernia, kyphoscoliosis, joint laxity, bilateral hip dislocation, muscular hypotonia, and motor developmental delay. RESULTS: The cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormal signal related to previous hemorrhage. Metabolic investigations and neuromuscular evaluation were normal, excluding other possible explanations of hypotonia. An analysis of urinary cross-links demonstrated an increase in the lysyl-pyridinoline to hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline ratio, suggesting the diagnosis of kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Molecular analysis of the PLOD1 gene revealed that she had a novel homozygous p.Pro622Argfs*3 (c. 1863_1864dupCG) mutation in exon 17 that is expected to cause complete loss of the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 1 and to cause kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a child with the kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a novel mutation of the PLOD1 gene. Our observations suggest that vascular lesions in the neonatal period may be a rare additional clinical feature of kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Ehlers-Danlos type VIA; connective tissue disorder; hypotonia; kyphoscoliosis; novel mutation; vascular lesion

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Vahidnezhad, H., L. Youssefian, et al. (2018). "Mutations in PLOD3, encoding lysyl hydroxylase 3, cause a complex connective tissue disorder including recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa-like blistering phenotype with abnormal anchoring fibrils and type VII collagen deficiency." Matrix Biol.
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Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), the paradigm of heritable skin fragility disorders, is associated with mutations in as many as 20 distinct genes. One of the clinical variants, recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB), demonstrates sub-lamina densa blistering accompanied by alterations in anchoring fibrils due to mutations in COL7A1. In this study, we characterized a patient with widespread connective tissue abnormalities including skin blistering similar to that in RDEB. Whole exome sequencing, combined with genome-wide homozygosity mapping, identified a homozygous missense mutation in PLOD3 encoding lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3). No mutations in COL7A1, the gene previously associated with RDEB, were detected. The level of LH3 was dramatically reduced in the skin and fibroblast cultures from the patient. The blistering in the skin occurred below the lamina densa and was associated with variable density and morphology of anchoring fibrils. The level of type VII collagen expression in the skin was markedly reduced. Analysis of hydroxylysine and its glycosylated derivatives (galactosyl-hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine) revealed marked reduction in glycosylated hydroxylysine. Collectively, these findings indicate that PLOD3 mutations can result in a dystrophic EB-like phenotype in the spectrum of connective tissue disorders and add it to the list of candidate genes associated with skin fragility.

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van der Slot, A. J., A. M. Zuurmond, A. F. Bardoel, C. Wijmenga, H. E. Pruijs, D. O. Sillence, J. Brinckmann, D. J. Abraham, C. M. Black, N. Verzijl, J. DeGroot, R. Hanemaaijer, J. M. TeKoppele, T. W. Huizinga and R. A. Bank (2003). "Identification of PLOD2 as telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase, an important enzyme in fibrosis." J Biol Chem 278(42): 40967-40972
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The hallmark of fibrotic processes is an excessive accumulation of collagen. The deposited collagen shows an increase in pyridinoline cross-links, which are derived from hydroxylated lysine residues within the telopeptides. This change in cross-linking is related to irreversible accumulation of collagen in fibrotic tissues. The increase in pyridinoline cross-links is likely to be the result of increased activity of the enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of the telopeptides (telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase, or TLH). Although the existence of TLH has been postulated, the gene encoding TLH has not been identified. By analyzing the genetic defect of Bruck syndrome, which is characterized by a pyridinoline deficiency in bone collagen, we found two missense mutations in exon 17 of PLOD2, thereby identifying PLOD2 as a putative TLH gene. Subsequently, we investigated fibroblasts derived from fibrotic skin of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and found that PLOD2 mRNA is highly increased indeed. Furthermore, increased pyridinoline cross-link levels were found in the matrix deposited by SSc fibroblasts, demonstrating a clear link between mRNA levels of the putative TLH gene (PLOD2) and the hydroxylation of lysine residues within the telopeptides. These data underscore the significance of PLOD2 in fibrotic processes.

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Walker, L. C., J. C. Marini, D. K. Grange, J. Filie and H. N. Yeowell (1999). "A patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI is homozygous for a premature termination codon in exon 14 of the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene." Mol Genet Metab 67(1): 74-82
Article   PubMed   Mutations  
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In the present study, we have characterized a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI) as homozygous for a pathogenetic mutation in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) gene. This mutant allele contributes to very low levels of LH1 mRNA and severely diminished LH activity in his skin fibroblasts. The reduced hydroxylysine content of collagen was reflected in the increased electrophoretic mobility of the type I collagen alpha1 and alpha2 chains precipitated from cell and media samples of cultured patient fibroblasts. The homozygous mutation, a single base change of C1557 --> G which would convert a codon for tyrosine (TAC) at residue 511 to a stop codon (TAG) in exon 14 of the LH1 gene, was identified in full-length cDNAs for LH1 amplified from the patient's fibroblasts. We have demonstrated that the low level of LH activity measured in his fibroblasts may result from a minor processing pathway in which an in-frame skipping of exon 14 containing the mutation restores partial function of the enzyme. The mutation was confirmed in both alleles in genomic DNA from the proband and by the maternal inheritance of this mutation. The father's DNA was unavailable for analysis. The autosomal recessive nature of EDS VI was verified by the fact that the mother, who has one mutated and one normal allele, is clinically unaffected by this disorder. This mutation, which has been previously observed in another unrelated compound heterozygous patient, may prove to be a more widespread mutation for EDS VI.

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Walker, L. C., M. A. Overstreet, A. Siddiqui, A. De Paepe, G. Ceylaner, F. Malfait, S. Symoens, P. Atsawasuwan, M. Yamauchi, S. Ceylaner, R. A. Bank and H. N. Yeowell (2005). "A novel mutation in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene causes decreased lysyl hydroxylase activity in an Ehlers-Danlos VIA patient." J Invest Dermatol 124(5): 914-918
Article   PubMed   Mutations  
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The clinical diagnosis of a patient with the phenotype of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI was confirmed biochemically by the severely diminished level of lysyl hydroxylase (LH) activity in the patient's skin fibroblasts. A novel homozygous mutation, a single base change of T(1360)-->G in exon 13 of the LH1 gene, predicted to result in W446G, was identified in the patient's full-length cDNA. This was confirmed in genomic DNA from both the patient and her parents, who were heterozygous for the mutation. This mutation was introduced into an LH1-pAcGP67 baculoviral construct and expressed, in parallel with normal LH1, in an insect cell system. The loss of LH activity in the mutated recombinant construct confirmed the pathogenicity of this mutation. Although not in the major catalytic site, this mutation occurs in a highly conserved region of the LH1 gene and may contribute to loss of activity by interfering with normal folding of the enzyme.

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Wang, C., H. Luosujarvi, J. Heikkinen, M. Risteli, L. Uitto and R. Myllyla (2002). "The third activity for lysyl hydroxylase 3: galactosylation of hydroxylysyl residues in collagens in vitro." Matrix Biol 21(7): 559-566
Article   PubMed   Mutations  
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Lysyl hydroxylase (LH, EC 1.14.11.4), galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.50) and glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.66) are enzymes involved in posttranslational modifications of collagens. They sequentially modify lysyl residues in specific positions to hydroxylysyl, galactosylhydroxylysyl and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysyl residues. These structures are unique to collagens and essential for their functional activity. Lysines and hydroxylysines form collagen cross-links. Hydroxylysine derived cross-links, usually as glycosylated forms, occur especially in weight-bearing and mineralized tissues. The detailed functions of the hydroxylysyl and hydroxylysyl linked carbohydrate structures are not known, however. Hydroxylysine linked carbohydrates are found mainly in collagens, but recent reports indicate that these structures are also present and probably have an important function in other proteins. Earlier we have shown that human LH3, but not isoforms LH1, LH2a and LH2b, possesses both LH and glucosyltransferase activity (J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36158). In this paper we demonstrate that galactosyltransferase activity is also associated with the same gene product, thus indicating that one gene product can catalyze all three consecutive steps in hydroxylysine linked carbohydrate formation. In vitro mutagenesis experiments indicate that Cys(144) and aspartates in positions 187-191 of LH3 are important for the galactosyltransferase activity. Our results suggest that manipulation of the gene for LH3 can be used to selectively alter the glycosylation and hydroxylation reactions, and provides a new tool to clarify the functions of the unique hydroxylysine linked carbohydrates in collagens and other proteins.

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Wang, C., M. Risteli, J. Heikkinen, A. K. Hussa, L. Uitto and R. Myllyla (2002). "Identification of amino acids important for the catalytic activity of the collagen glucosyltransferase associated with the multifunctional lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3)." J Biol Chem 277(21): 18568-18573
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Collagen glucosyltransferase (GGT) activity has recently been shown to be associated with human lysyl hydroxylase (LH) isoform 3 (LH3) (Heikkinen, J., Risteli, M., Wang, C., Latvala, J., Rossi, M., Valtavaara, M., Myllylä, R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36158-36163). The LH and GGT activities of the multifunctional LH3 protein modify lysyl residues in collagens posttranslationally to form hydroxylysyl and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysyl residues respectively. We now report that in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, where only one ortholog is found for lysyl hydroxylase, the LH and GGT activities are also associated with the same gene product. The aim of the present studies is the identification of amino acids important for the catalytic activity of GGT. Our data indicate that the GGT active site is separate from the carboxyl-terminal LH active site of human LH3, the amino acids important for the GGT activity being located at the amino-terminal part of the molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved cysteine at position 144 to isoleucine and a leucine at position 208 to isoleucine caused a marked reduction in GGT activity. These amino acids were conserved in C. elegans LH and mammalian LH3, but not in LH1 or LH2, which lack GGT activity. The data also reveal a DXD-like motif in LH3 characteristic of many glycosyltransferases and the mutagenesis of aspartates of this motif eliminated the GGT activity. Reduction in GGT activity was not accompanied by a change in the LH activity of the molecule. Thus GGT activity can be manipulated independently of LH activity in LH3. These data provide the information needed to design knock-out studies for investigation of the function of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysyl residues of collagens in vivo.

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Yeowell, H. N. and L. C. Walker (1997). "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI results from a nonsense mutation and a splice site-mediated exon-skipping mutation in the lysyl hydroxylase gene." Proc Assoc Am Physicians 109(4): 383-396
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We have characterized a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI as a compound heterozygote for the lysyl hydroxylase (LH) gene, with a pathogenetic mutation in each allele contributing to the very low levels of mRNA and LH activity in his fibroblasts. Amplification of full-length LH cDNAs resulted in normal-sized (2.9-kb) and shortened (2.8-kb) transcripts indicative of two populations of alleles. One allele contained a paternally inherited C1557 to G transition that coded for a premature stop codon (Y511X) and introduced an Nhe I restriction site in exon 14 of the LH gene. The mutation in the other allele was an exon 5 deletion that produced the shortened polymerase chain reaction transcript and generated a premature stop codon at the beginning of exon 7. Sequencing of genomic DNAs spanning exon 5 showed a mutation in the consensus donor splice site at the beginning of intron 5 (gt-->at) in both the proband and his mother. Via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the parents' fibroblasts showed a disproportionately lower level of each mutant allele compared to their normal alleles. This study suggests that the decreased transcription of the LH gene, which may be attributed to the presence of the nonsense mutations, accounts for the LH deficiency, and consequently, this patient's clinical phenotype of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI.

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Yeowell, H. N. and L. C. Walker (2000). "Mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene that result in enzyme deficiency and the clinical phenotype of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI." Mol Genet Metab 71(1-2): 212-224
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The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are a heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders that are characterized by joint hypermobility and skin fragility and hyperextensibility. Patients with the autosomal recessive type VI variant of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS VI), also classified as the kyphoscoliotic type, are clinically characterized by neonatal kyphoscoliosis, generalized joint laxity, skin fragility, and severe muscle hypotonia at birth. Biochemically, this has been attributed to a deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase (LH), an important posttranslational modifying enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. This enzyme hydroxylates specific lysine residues in the collagen molecule to form hydroxylysines which have two important functions. The residues serve as attachment sites for galactose and glucosylgalactose and they also act as precursors of the crosslinking process that gives collagen its tensile strength. At least 20 different mutations have been identified in the LH1 gene (the originally described form) that contribute to LH deficiency and the clinical characteristics of EDS VI. Two of these mutations, a large duplication of exons 10-16, arising from a homologous recombination of intronic Alu sequences, and a nonsense mutation, Y511X, in exon 14 of the LH1 gene, have been identified in five or more unrelated patients. Both mutations appear to have originated from a single ancestral gene. Alternative processing pathways involving alternate splicing and mRNA degradation, which reduce the effect of the mutant allele and restore partial activity of the enzyme, have been identified. A second class of EDS VI has been proposed in which patients have the clinical phenotype of EDS VI but their levels of LH activity are normal. The biochemical basis for this form of EDS VI is currently unknown.

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Yeowell, H. N., L. C. Walker, B. Farmer, J. Heikkinen and R. Myllyla (2000). "Mutational analysis of the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene (PLOD) in six unrelated patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI: prenatal exclusion of this disorder in one family." Hum Mutat 16(1): 90
Article   PubMed   Mutations  
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Screening of full length cDNAs for lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; also PLOD) amplified from dermal fibroblasts from six unrelated patients with the autosomal recessive disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI) has shown them to be both homozygous and compound heterozygous for mutations in the gene. These mutations, which were verified in genomic DNA, result in a deficiency of LH activity (<25% of normal) in the probands, who are clinically characterized by kyphoscoliosis and extensibility of skin and joints. Four novel mutations identified in these patients include a mutation of an inserted C in one homozygous patient (1702insC) and three point mutations resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs): Y142X, Q327X (in two patients), and R670X. In the family with the R670X mutation we have prenatally excluded EDS VI by the characterization of mutations and their allelic inheritance. We have identified two previously reported mutations in the new patients: a seven exon duplication (in two patients) and a point mutation that codes for a PTC, Y511X, (in two patients). Genotype analysis indicated that the Y511X mutation may originate from a common ancestral gene. Several alternative splicing pathways have been identified which bypass the PTCs and can also restore the open reading frame.

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Yip, S. P., K. H. Leung, W. Y. Fung, P. W. Ng, P. C. Sham and M. K. Yap (2011). "A DNA pooling-based case-control study of myopia candidate genes COL11A1, COL18A1, FBN1, and PLOD1 in a Chinese population." Mol Vis 17: 810-821
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PURPOSE: We examined the relationship between high myopia and common polymorphisms in four candidate genes: collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1); collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1 (COL18A1); fibrillin 1 (FBN1); and procollagen-lysine 1,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1 (PLOD1). These genes were selected because rare pathogenic mutations in these genes cause disease syndromes that have myopia, usually high myopia, as one of the common presenting features. METHODS: This study recruited 600 unrelated Han Chinese subjects including 300 cases with high myopia (spherical equivalent or SE
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Yis, U., E. Dirik, C. Chambaz, B. Steinmann and C. Giunta (2008). "Differential diagnosis of muscular hypotonia in infants: the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI)." Neuromuscul Disord 18(3): 210-214
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The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI) (OMIM 225400) is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia and kyphoscoliosis at birth, joint hypermobility, and skin hyperelasticity and fragility. Biochemically, it is characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.4) due to mutations in PLOD1. This deficiency results in underhydroxylation of collagen lysyl residues and, hence, an abnormal pattern of lysyl pyridinoline (LP) and hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) crosslinks excreted in the urine. Because of hypotonia and delay in gross motor development, a neuromuscular disease is usually suspected, and in most cases the diagnosis is considered only very late, after performing an invasive neuromuscular work-up with normal results. We report a 12-month-old boy with kyphoscoliosis and delayed gross motor development, in whom the differential diagnosis of kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI) was initially suspected and successively confirmed by the abnormal urinary ratio of total pyridinolines (LP to HP), and by mutation analysis. We advocate the analysis of urinary pyridinolines in all infants with severe hypotonia which is highly specific and sensitive, quick and inexpensive.

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Zhou, P., Y. Liu, F. Lv, M. Nie, Y. Jiang, O. Wang, W. Xia, X. Xing and M. Li (2014). "Novel mutations in FKBP10 and PLOD2 cause rare Bruck syndrome in Chinese patients." PLoS One 9(9): e107594.
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Bruck syndrome (BS) is an extremely rare form of osteogenesis imperfecta characterized by congenital joint contracture, multiple fractures and short stature. We described the phenotypes of BS in two Chinese patients for the first time. The novel compound heterozygous mutations c.764_772dupACGTCCTCC (p.255_257dupHisValLeu) in exon 5 and c.1405G>T (p.Gly469X) in exon 9 of FKBP10 were identified in one proband. The novel compound heterozygous mutations c.1624delT (p.Tyr542Thrfs*18) in exon 14 and c.1880T>C (p.Val627Ala) in exon 17 of PLOD2 were identified in another probrand. Intravenous zoledronate was a potent agent for these patients, confirmed the efficacy of bisphosphonates on this disease. In conclusion, the novel causative mutations identified in the patients expand the genotypic spectrum of BS.

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